Saturday, March 24, 2012

The Scarcity Technique

Chapter 7 in Robert B. Cialdini’s book Influence (science and practice) covers a specific technique or tactic that is used in influencing an individual or a group, Scarcity. The book is quite revealing, as it is effective in outlining the various tactics used to affect people through influence and persuasion. Scarcity plays a major role in persuasion.

To read more about scarcity please visit.

Thursday, March 22, 2012

Advertisers- Capitalist - Bottom Line

Most recently my views were challenged towards advertisers and the persuasive techniques used to get people to spend. I identify the "spending concept" as the main artery to the life and power of capitalism. Therefore advertising is a large part of the spine of capitalism.

After taking a closer look at the elements or components of how advertising works, I concluded that advertising is a psychological ill that is more recognizable today. The playing field is not fair. There is a need for educating society about the good and the bad of advertisings persuasive or influencing techniques and how capitalism fuels the need for persuasive techniques.

I believe that education of capitalist practices and its connection to advertisers can be a key element to help fortify an economy that is struggling. The education should included the principles of capitalism along with the process of advertising. I suggest that capitalism can and does create a landscape that influences advertising to target some groups more than others because of their studied spending habits. It is all about the bottom line for advertisers and capitalist. I have included some information I shared in a previous forum discussion thats describe the situation in regards to African American consumers.

African Americans are being targeted because of what advertiser have learned and continue to learn about spending habits. By 2013 African American spending will be 1.2 trillion. But, only 18% of American business are black owned and only make 135 billion in sales. There are an estimated 42 million African Americans who earn an average of 32,000 dollars a year. With these numbers we can determine that 1.3 trillion dollars are earned on the average by African Americans.

This information shows that African Americans spend more than 95% of their income. How could this be? Target Market News shared an article that says the top 25 advertisers are continuing to spend more advertising dollars in the African American demographic. I would like to challenge others to consider, what I suggest is the obvious, African Americans and their culture of spending is being targeted; not to help educate on healthy spending habits but to take advantage of the disparity.

There needs to be some priority on all people to be healthier consumers but especially with a group of people who spend as much as they make. Advertisers warn, inform and educate individuals of cancers, diabetes, heart disease and so on, but do not inform, warn or educate enough about the side affects of advertising and its relationship with capitalism.

If advertisers are going to continue to use persuasive techniques where there is no fair balance of knowledge in reference to these techniques, the disparity will continue. "Persuasion is most likely to occur in a responsible way and fair way if both sides have equal opportunity to persuade and if each has approximately equivalent ability and access to the media of communication" (Larson, 1995, p.11). So if a group is targeted, unless they have equal access as the advertisers to persuade, it is an unfair and unequal experience.

I hope to identify a campaign of advertising that educates people about advertising and capitalism. I think this can help us to reclaim control over our economy and add some new positive approaches to redeveloping Americas struggling education system.

I am optimistic about the opportunity for moral advertising therefore moral persuasion. What I have come to understand is that persuasive techniques can be used to educate as well, capitalism and advertising can work on a fair or fairer playing ground.


Larson, Charles U. (1995). Persuasion, Reception and Responsibility. Wadsworth Publishing Company Northern Illinois University.

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

Persuasion Techniques- Revised

Persuasion was discussed and reviewed this week. After researching The Media Literacy, I discovered that there were many persuasion techniques used by the media. Some of these basic techniques were obvious but the advanced techniques really opened my mind to the levels of persuasion applied to media content, particularly advertising. Media Literacy involves the awareness and the understanding of how the language of persuasion techniques works our conscious media consumption through affecting our subconscious.

This blog will describe the various persuasion techniques applied to a particular. The audience as well as the text and subtext meaning will be explored. This exercise explores an example of how advertising uses the persuasive techniques to create the present consumer landscape. We all persuade but the advertising world uses persuasion more often and more specifically. Media literacy is necessary in order to manage the pervasive landscape of advertising.

I am excited about the American car company’s recovery and enjoy the new "Imported from Detroit" campaigns. Attached is a link to an ad that I think demonstrates successful use of persuasion techniques. This particular ad is called John Varvatos-"Attitude".

The audience for this commercial is broad but obviously is more specific to American an adult who can afford a car or who is planning to afford a car. This commercial is timeless and will affect an audience for generations. The narrative associated with this Ad appeals to anyone who believes in America and the American Dream. The narrative is what separates this ad from others. There is textual and sub textual meaning associated with most ads and this ad use the text subtext to make a lasting connection with the audience.

When analyzing this ad it is important to consider the text vs. the subtext. This ad wants the audience to connect in a direct and realistic way. Individuals know America because you are American and so is Chrysler. The text of the Ad says, “Chrysler is back”. The text says that the car is imported but it is not. It was made in Detroit. The subtext of "imported", suggest a comparison of vehicles made in America to those that are imported. Americans do feel that imported vehicles are better than American made vehicles. The new Chrysler has the same imported appeal. The subtext allows the advertisers to say more than just what is obvious or literal. This commercial uses subtext to bring the audience closer to the essence of the product. The advertisers want the audience to have an essentialist experience or connection.

In this ad, the Chrysler 300 is imported to New York and driven by a popular New York fashion designer. He's out looking for inspiration. He stops at an old school record store to pick up a rare selection of vinyl. The designer finds what he's looking for and rides the streets of New York back to his studio. He displays a blue-collar attitude in a white-collar world.

Even though I didn't know who the designer was, he felt like a celebrity. Celebrity appeal is one of the basic persuasion techniques. The idea of the designer as an artist looking for inspiration is an example of association. I can relate to the artist and what appeals to the artist. But for those who are not artist, there is a testimonial connection with the ad reaching out to the plain folks.

The intensity of the American dream expressed through the narration comes across as a persuasive technique. The ad also uses symbols like the old record store, the vinyl album, the record player and even the New York landscape flowing twits the power and strength displayed through the music. This ad expresses American ingenuity and the voice of the blue-collar community.

Overall, this ad campaign demonstrates a feeling of nostalgia that allows the viewer to be less compelled to think of any negative resulting from the past. The persuasion techniques used reduces the feeling of persuasion and seems to empower the viewer because of the honesty within the ad. This is a successful ad and is an example of the kind of techniques I would use consistently to persuade.

This exercise validates reasons for pressing the importance of media literacy and the awareness and understanding of persuasion and how persuasion is used to move the masses through media. Having knowledge of the persuasion techniques empowers the viewer to be more conscious of media consumption. A smarter viewer makes smarter choices.

Here is the ad for your review.

Friday, March 9, 2012

Bias and Media Literacy- revised

This blog post will discuss media bias and how I am personally affected by media biases within the news. In order to take a closer look at my media biases it is important to know how media bias is defined. Also it is important to take inventory or asses my media consumption.

Wikipedia has a lot to say about media bias and defines the term media bias as "a pervasive or widespread bias contravening the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article". This definition opened my mind as I began assessing my own bias. I am not a journalist but I am a producer of media that can affect individuals understanding and perception. Next is the personal assessment of my media bias.

The television was my babysitter as I was a latch key kid who's single mom worked two jobs in order to take care of me. My mom did not read nor did she read to me. As I took a deeper look I realized many of my family members were not readers. I believe that reading is the foundation to literacy.

As I became an adult it was apparent that I had some deficiencies to overcome if I were to be an effective producer of media. Not until I did a true assessment of my media consumption did I understand what my deficiencies were and how they have potentially affected my development as a media producer.

Based on my inventory I learned I had many biases. For instance, I prefer television over the newspaper, radio and computer for news and entertainment. But why such dependence and trust in television? I have come to realize that my culture, child hood and educational experiences or lack of, helped to form my biases.

News is important to me to but I find that you can not get away from the propaganda as well as the bias that pervade most news reporting. For example, when it comes to news I prefer CNN over Fox News. But why? In my opinion I believe FOX news is more biased than its competitor CNN. FOX news is less neutral on many political issues and makes it its political ties obvious it it's viewers. In my opinion CNN attempts to be more neutral but even they have their bias. I understand CNN and FOX are companies that are managed by people and people will apply their personal bias in the content they develop. Journalist are not alone in this process. Filmmakers like myself use documentaries as a platform to speak out against many issues that affect them personally as well as others.

Marshall McLuhan reminds us all "the medium is the message" not the content. I embrace this theory and use it as a way to maintain focus and to be aware of my biases as well as the biases others. It is crucial as a media psychologist to be a critical thinker and to find neutrality in the approach on analyzing and producing content as well as empowering others with media literacy. I will continue to apply personal assessment of my biases in order to be neutral and objective.

Monday, February 27, 2012

It's Time To Take Charge - revised

Assessing technology is not only for those who create technology but also for those who use and consume technology.

Recently I participated in an assignment that encouraged me to create my own idea or concept for new technology. It proved to be enlightening as well as challenging. It is not easy to create new technology when you don’t have a conscious understanding of how to assess or analyze the technology around you.

The purpose of analyzing technology is to not only to deconstruct the power but to discover the human connection to that particular technology. We tend to use technology in the “ground” state of mind. Meaning, we are not aware of the development or the components associated with the development of technology. Dr. Jason Ohler, author of Digital Community Digital Citizen, says "Technology is a fog. It covers its inventions, so when one gets close to them, they are seen clearly" (p. 94).

The goal of this blog post is to demonstrate how assessing the process of creating technology brings the purpose and use of technology into the “figure” state or working through the fog. Here, individuals can create better consumer habits.

I introduced the new technology idea that would allow for cell phones to be charged from a Watch or portable timepiece. It sounds like an interesting proposal but the only way to determine the validity of the idea is to assess or analyze the potential development of the technology.

The following is an outline associated with the assessment of the Cell Phone Charging Watch.

It's "Time" to take "Charge"!

1) Physical characteristic- this product would be designed as a watch with multiple purposes. It is functional as a timepiece, compass and cell phone charger. It will be worn on the wrist. It will have multiple “fashion” designs to appeal to the everyday user. Solar powered.

2) Enhancement- this device will allow for individuals to portably and wirelessly charge a cell phone. This will obsolete the need to be connected to electricity, car and computer in order to charge phone. The fact that it would be solar powered makes it a green and progressive technology.

3) Predecessors/next steps- this devise replaces or lessons the need for cumbersome wall chargers and the need to be connected. It advances the purpose of the Watch.

4) Social context- our society is ruled by convenience. This technology reduces the need for other technology that creates a “time” concern. But it does mean that people will spend more time connected to their cell phone device.

5) Biases- This product favors those who can afford it and are digital natives. Those who cannot afford it and those who are not connected to the advancement of technology are left out of the benefits of the technology.

6) Benefits- This product creates convenience and disconnects individuals from electricity. It creates new appreciation for the watch, as existing technology. This product can be fashionable. More Watches may be purchased.

7) Impacts- This product can disconnect people from the constant need to be plugged in for energy. This product will push forward with discovering the technology that can fit in the watch and be powerful enough to charge the cell phone. This power or energy can potentially be used to develop other technology. This product will connect people to their hand devices more often. This can be a good thing for those are on the run and need to stay connected to their communication device. Staying connected to device can be a bad thing as individuals can create more clutter and more fog in their lives.

Note: The watch will be made of biodegradable materials that will allow for the penetration of light to create a constant charge. It will be a combination of existing technology: time piece, and add the functionality of a USB port of some type that will allow for cell phones to connect with watch.Many designs of watches can be developed with a solar charging USB port. This product will be made in America with American ingenuity.

After taking a closer look at the watch design, it seems like this could work. But, more thought can and should go into the process. For example, after taking a closer look I see that I am actually flipping the technology. Adding the charging port to the watch may create a new reason to own and wear a watch. "Flipping" the original technology to create something new encourages new reason to be aware of the existing technology of the Watch.

Ohler, J. (2010). Digital community digial citizen. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Monday, February 20, 2012

My H.I.P. Mantra

Use Technology with Honesty (how it applies to me); with Integrity (how it applies to others) and with Passion”.

The 21st century has unveiled technology to society that has changed how humans experience the world and the people within it. It is more important than ever for individuals to develop a conscious process of acknowledging technology. A mantra is an effective way to proactively consider the impacts of technology on an on going basis with old and new technology.

Honesty applies to an individual or personal understanding of technology and how it applies to that individual’s personal existence.

The integrity of those who use and create technology affects the lives of the community the technology it serves.

Passion is the driving force for creation. It is important to acknowledge the energy that goes into the development of technology to appreciate its use and purpose. The energy that creates technology is human energy. It is motivated and encouraged by culture, environment and social status. Passion is human. A person may not understand everything about how a piece of technology was created but he or she can understand human passion.

The goal is to see technology, and consider it “figure” rather than "ground".

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Film to HD - Revised

McLuhan’s Tetrad can be applied to many media examples but one in particular is the Film industry. There are many technological advances in the film industry, nothing more apparent the development of HD. The laws of media can be applied to film and its dominance until HD arrived on the market. This post attempts to apply the tetrad to the evolution of the film aesthetic. The tetrad gives a quadrant of questions that apply to existence of technology especially media technology. Enhance, retrieve, reverse and obsolesce are the components of the tetrad.

Film began in the late 1800’s and reached global dominance in the 20th century. Movies were made with film; celluloid, and as time progressed film development grew. Film dominated the feature film and television market.

What did film enhance? It enhanced the lifestyles and cultures of those who could experience, still or moving, images captured on film. The development of the film camera allowed for moving images to create an industry that created jobs and other industries. Film enhanced or amplified humans’ ability to record history and explore human narratives. The film (moving images) created opportunities for education and arts entertainment culture to advance society as well as to document human existence and behavior.

Before the discovery of film and its ability to enhance social growth, there was print media as well as radio that reined as the keys to communicating news, education and entertainment and therefore advertising. But what would it obsolesce? Film would almost make news and radio obsolete. The film industry in its “figure” stage challenged print media and radio and would create a “ground” stage associated with print media and radio.

When film was developed and became a dominant tool to further the human narrative. What did this technology retrieve, renew or reactivate? Film retrieved the expression of the human narrative. Film would allow societies to retrieve history and reactivated the spirit of the human story. What might have been lost in the pages of books could now be explored in a more visceral way. “The motional picture industry has provided a window on the world, and the colonized nations have looked through that window and have seen the things of which they have been deprived” (McLuhan & Fiore, 1967).

“Reversal” is the final component of the tetrad that can be applied to the discovery of film. When film development is pushed to it limits, what happens? When film is regulated and accepted as the norm or becomes “ground” what is the result?

Digital and HD cameras were developed to challenge the extended and growing cost of film projects as well create another format that could offer that same or better visual experience for the independent filmmaker. It would be the cost of film production and the growing digital technology that would reverse the dominance of film in the television and film industry.

McLuhan’s tetrad, which expresses the laws of media, is a valuable discovery and can be applied to all technology. The tetrad should be used as way to encourage media literacy and forming new interest in the development of technology. In secondary and primary education, individuals learn to create and dissect the English language; the tetrad should be included. The tetrad would be a powerful source of education and is an effective tool. No different than mathematics or learning to structure a sentence, the tetrad benefits human learning experience by creating away individuals can really see technology in the “figure” stage.

Monday, February 6, 2012

Mcluhan’s Wake is My Wake to Media Literacy

This week the focus was on Marshall McLuhan. The wonderful film about his life, “McLuhan’s Wake”, was central to the focus. There are many outlets to discovering Marshall McLuhan and his work but it was not until the pursuit of my PhD in media psychology that I was introduced. The 4 laws of media resonated as a discussion topic.

McLuhan is a visionary, a man of great insight and critical thought. McLuhan’s work has affected how psychology is applied to media. Media psychology has a ground level or foundation in which it is built and McLuhan challenged society to change its frame of reference when discussing the future of technology.

Marshall McLuhan’s “4 laws of media” were introduced as an insight of the advertising industry and open the doors for the idea of a Global Village. Enhance, retrieve, reverse and obsolesce are described as the 4 laws of media. McLuhan created a tetrad to help examine the interlocking of these laws.

Humans are consumed with technology, especially new media technology that must be examined in ways that demonstrate what the benefits are and the understanding of what new possibilities that can result from new media. What is being enhanced? When the cell phone was introduced to society it allowed people to communicate more and basically made the home phone obsolete. Some people actually replace their home phone with the cell phone. But, the Internet technology required a phone line. Factors like, privacy, natural disasters and Internet and cable television gave reason for phone lines to return to its original use as a landline. The “reverse” law examines the idea of when pushed to the limit; can the new media reverse the original characteristics? This law applies to the cell phone and landline technology. Cell phone consumption has reversed the need of home phones. The “retrieve” law applies to the ability of the new media to reintroduce the benefits of media that was once lost, making the once obsolete essential again. Here again, the phone line is retrieved. Finally the “obsolesce” law refers to media, which is no longer essential because of the introduction of new media. These laws have proven to be consistently in motion whether individuals are aware of it or not.

Over time there has been many examples of the laws in action. During our history we played music on records that then became 8 track tapes that lead to cassette tapes and then to the CD format. Today we have the ability to stream and download music from computers and smart phones. One media technology replacing another actually created a better music listening experience. Also today we see that as media progresses individuals have choices that they did not have previously.

Many people appreciate albums and have a record player that allows them to digitize that record (album). The creation of Hip Hop music allowed for albums to stay around long enough to still be prevalent in social use. Technology continues to work its way back to where it came from. This has been described as the “now, again” aesthetic. What used to be in the past or obsolete is “now” again.

There are many examples of “laws of media” and once an individual has the opportunity to absorb this information, possibly, a foundation for media literacy is defined. The challenge is to look for laws of media at work in individuals’ own life and media experience. The “laws of media” is a revelation. McLuhan continued with other theories that helped to explain, almost scientifically, the world today. With respect to readers, McLuhan is right and has given society more reason than ever to use history as way to carving a future.

Thursday, February 2, 2012

Understanding Augmented Reality

Understanding Augmented Reality

This week I have had the pleasure of reading about augmented reality and was challenged to think about new technology that I might create. Our society today is inundated with technology that is intended to enhance the lively hoods of individuals. It becomes important to able to define technology beyond its intended use. Augmented Reality defines the current state of affairs associated with media presentation and media content.

Wikipedia defines augmented reality as a “live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real world environment whose elements are augmented by computer generated sensory input such as sound, video graphics or GPS data”. We live in a world where the reality is modified more often than we consciously understand.

The point of this blog is to bring attention to the importance of educating individuals about augmented reality as a conscious experience. The computer and components thereof (chips) is the common denominator in the definition of augmented reality. I had no idea that my reality was being augmented daily, that I have been participating in the process of augmentation when I started editing television and film projects in film school.

From the beginning of film, individual’s reality has been augmented. Electronics has augmented reality through radio and television. Computer technology has redefined or has generated a reason to establish a definition that directly relates to computer generated images. When I turn on a camera and look through the viewfinder time code numbers and information pop up on the viewer screen. I all ways thought that it was useful information not really looking at it as augmented reality. When filmmakers apply graphics and visual special affects to a film or television show they are augmenting realty through the use of computer electronics. Cell phone use today involves the process of augmented reality as smart phones continue to grow with the use of applications and other computer generated software.

Humans have been experiencing a form of augmented reality from the moment airwaves have been used to communicate. Telegraphs, telephones, radio, television, computers, cell phones are distribution outlets that augment reality. Television and film continue to expand the concept of augmented reality as narratives continue to include computer technology to create or recreate reality that affects viewers’ emotions. As an educator the idea of augmented reality is important to share and encourage. Individuals should have and keep a conscious understanding of augmented reality as way to motivate media literacy. When thinking about new technology that I might create, I can not escape the process of augmented reality and realize that even beyond media, augmented reality is all around me.

Thursday, January 26, 2012

Digital Native- Digital Citizen

Each week, I make a blog entry that reflects new knowledge gainded from research and introspection of new technology, new media and its role in our social communication. I have found that understanding communication within the idea of community and the relationship community has with citizenship is key. This blog will further the discussion of community and citizenship while making a correlation to the ideas of digital immigrants and digital natives.

Jason Ohler, author of Digital Community Digital Citizen, introduced the discussion and explains the need to consider the relationship or connection of community and citizenship as society continues to be inundated with technology and media. Ohler (2010) says “as we consider technology as figure, and see clearly its pervasiveness and power, we realize there is very little we can effectively legislate in a free society that will prevent technology from running amok or us from misusing its power” (P. 18)

This concern is the basis of the importance of insuring that individuals have the opportunity to understand their community in a digital way. I believe a foundation that is built on understanding and critical thinking offers individuals the opportunity to process their responsibilities that we all share within the digital community.

Digital community does lead to citizenship. My approach to this process is first understanding how a community is defined. The idea of a place where humans connect, communicate and survive describes the basis of a community. Within that community, the ability to project a universal mind set that allows for the growth of families and culture within that community is key. Naturally, the people of a community usually develop boundaries associated with behavior that defines what is acceptable and what is not acceptable. Citizenship involves protocol, rules and laws. Citizenship is sometimes looked at as being separate than community. Ohler (2010) shares, “the result is that your community and the basis for your legal, geographically defined citizenship could be completely separate” (p. 38). A community consciously and subconsciously creates these boundaries that allow for a community to thrive and therefore form citizenship. Digital citizenship requires individuals to be responsible. Ohler (2010) introduced the ISTE (International Society For Education) as an example of the responsibility necessary in a digital community.

“Citizenship is tied to community. It is an expression of our understanding of what our community expects of us and we expect of it” (Ohler, 2010, p. 36). I found it interesting that citizenship historically was meant only for those of a higher status. Dr. Jason Ohler explains in is book, “citizenship as most of us would recognize it is based on the efforts of philosophers, writers, and politicians living during the age of enlightenment”(Ohler, 2010). Citizenship suggested entitlements then and continues to suggest entitlements today. Entitlements are universal. Everyone can feel entitled in today’s media driven, social networking society by creating digital personalities within a digital community. Within that community citizenship evolves.

Digital community-digital citizen can be correlated to digital immigrant-digital native concepts. Within a digital community that evolves a digital citizenship, suggest that there is a conscious process that is a result of the community. Within the community, a collective mindset is to survive and communicate. The digital immigrant wants to do the same. As the digital immigrant develops communication and survival skills amidst the overwhelming amount of technology and media access, the process of becoming a digital native has begun. In affect digital immigrants exist within a community and as they develop so does the process of citizenship. The goal, in my mind, is to be digital natives completely aware of your digital and media space. This is a responsible act and holds a level of responsibility to the community. In my opinion, the responsibility discussed defines citizenship.

Wednesday, January 18, 2012

Digital Native-Digital Immigrant

Media literacy is at the forefront of my life’s journey today. Every bit of media that I read or watch appeals to me in some form or fashion. Because of this, I continue to search for my way to be an effective media psychologist in society today. The fact that I am as much of a consumer as everyone else motivates the goal to understand all that I can about media and its romantic and persuasive ways.

I am no different than any other human who strives to develop the best quality of life they can. Communication is a key an element to the idea of “quality of life”. Our individual narratives are only worthy if they can be communicated. As Ohler and Isbouts (2011) states communication is “a basic human desire that dates back to our earliest ancestors” (p. 30). Communication is a major common thread of developing or existing with in a community.

The digital world has given us greater opportunity to communicate whether it’s through the use of smart phones, computers or the Internet. Humans need to communicate. As the communication landscape changes so should the approach to media. That communication line is vital to the sustainability of a community. Here is where the concept of digital native and digital immigrant comes into play.

In our society today exist a gap or disconnect between generations. One generation is born into the digital community that exists and has a ready-made mindset for accepting and using the digital technology in our culture. These individuals consciously or subconsciously grasp the digital world and create their own expression of narratives that create a new kind of independence. This is the space of the digital native. Digital natives, use, understand and progress the digital landscape and the younger generation seem to be more apt for the infusion and continue to add to the growing culture.

The other generation is a more traditional minded generation relying on their past experience more than their future. They seem frightened or skeptical about the use of new media. Individuals become numbed by the pervasiveness of technology in our lives and the overwhelming amount of media that individuals consume. I believe it is the clutter factor that helps to create a numbed community. This is the barrier that exists within the world of digital natives and digital immigrants. There must be a considerably amount of time spent on creating ways to bridge the gap between natives and immigrants in order for media literacy to grow. The objective is to share the importance of not allowing the technology to control you but you control it. We must not get rid of the clutter, we can’t, and we must strive to understand how media works and why media works in our culture in order to create a healthier media society today.


Isbouts, J.P. & Ohler, J. (2011), Storytelling and Media: Narrative Models From Aristotle to Augmented Reality, Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, Ca.